Execute non-executable binary file.

Inspect Python version.

$ python3 --version
Python 3.10.6

Inspect mounted filesystem that does not permit direct execution of any binaries.

$ mount
/dev/sdb1 on /opt/files type ext4 (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,errors=remount-ro)

Try to execute binary file.

$ /opt/files/bin/ls
bash: /opt/files/ls: Permission denied

Create a simple Python script that uses os.memfd_create function which is available since Python 3.8 to create an anonymous file and os.execv to execute it. See miscellaneous operating system interfaces.

#!/usr/bin/env python3
   Execute non-executable binary file

import os, sys

sys.tracebacklimit = 

if len(sys.argv) >= 2:
  command_file   = str(sys.argv[1])
  command_params = sys.argv[2:]

  if os.path.exists(command_file):
    command_executable = os.access(command_file, os.X_OK)

    print(f';Command:    {command_file}';)  
    print(f';Params:     {command_params}';)
    print(f';Executable: {command_executable}';)  

    memfd_obj = os.memfd_create(';';)
    file_obj  = os.open(command_file, os.O_RDONLY)
    with os.fdopen(memfd_obj, ';wb';) as fd:
      fd.write(os.read(file_obj, os.path.getsize(file_obj)))
      a =os.execv(f"/proc/self/fd/{memfd_obj}", [command_file, *command_params],)
    raise RuntimeError("Error: Command file does not exist")
  print(f';  {__file__} command_file command_params';)

Execute non-executable binary.

$ python3 execute.py /opt/files/ls --version
Command:    /opt/files/ls
Params:     ['--version']
Executable: False

ls (GNU coreutils) 8.32
Copyright (C) 2020 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

Awesome! There are some limitations, but I will leave it to you to discover.