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How to install and configure a Kafka cluster without ZooKeeper

Install and configure a Kafka cluster without ZooKeeper to play with it.

Update package index.

$ sudo apt update

Install uuidgen application.

$ sudo apt-get install uuid-runtime

Generate Kafka cluster ID.

$ uuidgen | tr -d '-' | base64 | cut -b 1-22
YjhlODM3ZWZhYTE5NDU5Nj

Alternatively, you can use Kafka utilities on a server with an already extracted Kafka release.

$ /opt/kafka/kafka/bin/kafka-storage.sh random-uuid
7KMXSH8STbmHbQblAFiONA

Install GNU privacy guard.

$ sudo apt -y install gpg

Install Java.

$ sudo apt -y install openjdk-11-jre-headless

Create a dedicated kafka user.

$ sudo adduser --system --home /opt/kafka --shell /bin/bash --uid 809  --group --disabled-login kafka

Create a download directory.

$ sudo -u kafka mkdir /opt/kafka/software

Download software and its ASCII-armored signature.

$ sudo -u kafka wget  --quiet --directory-prefix /opt/kafka/software https://downloads.apache.org/kafka/2.8.0/kafka_2.13-2.8.0.tgz
$ sudo -u kafka wget  --quiet --directory-prefix /opt/kafka/software https://downloads.apache.org/kafka/2.8.0/kafka_2.13-2.8.0.tgz.asc

Download the public key used to sign this archive.

$ gpg --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-key 87101C7E5C6DB1C98ADBF93B016CCFCA0E2FD561

Verify signature.

$ gpg --verify /opt/kafka/software/kafka_2.13-2.8.0.tgz.asc /opt/kafka/software/kafka_2.13-2.8.0.tgz
gpg: Signature made Wed Apr 14 14:37:43 2021 UTC
gpg:                using RSA key 87101C7E5C6DB1C98ADBF93B016CCFCA0E2FD561
gpg:                issuer "vvcephei@apache.org"
gpg: Good signature from "John Roesler (CODE SIGNING KEY) " [unknown]
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: 8710 1C7E 5C6D B1C9 8ADB  F93B 016C CFCA 0E2F D56

Create an application directory.

$ sudo -u kafka mkdir /opt/kafka/kafka

Extract application.

$ sudo -u kafka tar --directory /opt/kafka/kafka --strip-components 1 --extract --file /opt/kafka/software/kafka_2.13-2.8.0.tgz

Create Kafka data directory.

$ sudo -u kafka mkdir /opt/kafka/kafka/kafka_data

Create Kafka configuration.

$ sudo -u kafka cat <<EOF | tee /opt/kafka/kafka/config/kraft/server.properties
# Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
# contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
# this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
# The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
# (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
# the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

#
# This configuration file is intended for use in KRaft mode, where
# Apache ZooKeeper is not present.  See config/kraft/README.md for details.
#

############################# Server Basics #############################

# The role of this server. Setting this puts us in KRaft mode
process.roles=broker,controller

# The node id associated with this instance's roles
node.id=$(hostname -s | sed "s/.*\([^0-9]\)//g")

# The connect string for the controller quorum
controller.quorum.voters=1@kafka1.example.org:9093,2@kafka2.example.org:9093,3@kafka3.example.org:9093

############################# Socket Server Settings #############################

# The address the socket server listens on. It will get the value returned from
# java.net.InetAddress.getCanonicalHostName() if not configured.
#   FORMAT:
#     listeners = listener_name://host_name:port
#   EXAMPLE:
#     listeners = PLAINTEXT://your.host.name:9092
listeners=PLAINTEXT://:9092,CONTROLLER://:9093
inter.broker.listener.name=PLAINTEXT

# Hostname and port the broker will advertise to producers and consumers. If not set,
# it uses the value for "listeners" if configured.  Otherwise, it will use the value
# returned from java.net.InetAddress.getCanonicalHostName().
advertised.listeners=PLAINTEXT://$(hostname -f):9092

# Listener, host name, and port for the controller to advertise to the brokers. If
# this server is a controller, this listener must be configured.
controller.listener.names=CONTROLLER

# Maps listener names to security protocols, the default is for them to be the same. See the config documentation for more details
listener.security.protocol.map=CONTROLLER:PLAINTEXT,PLAINTEXT:PLAINTEXT,SSL:SSL,SASL_PLAINTEXT:SASL_PLAINTEXT,SASL_SSL:SASL_SSL

# The number of threads that the server uses for receiving requests from the network and sending responses to the network
num.network.threads=3

# The number of threads that the server uses for processing requests, which may include disk I/O
num.io.threads=8

# The send buffer (SO_SNDBUF) used by the socket server
socket.send.buffer.bytes=102400

# The receive buffer (SO_RCVBUF) used by the socket server
socket.receive.buffer.bytes=102400

# The maximum size of a request that the socket server will accept (protection against OOM)
socket.request.max.bytes=104857600


############################# Log Basics #############################

# A comma separated list of directories under which to store log files
log.dirs=/opt/kafka/kafka/kafka_data

# The default number of log partitions per topic. More partitions allow greater
# parallelism for consumption, but this will also result in more files across
# the brokers.
num.partitions=1

# The number of threads per data directory to be used for log recovery at startup and flushing at shutdown.
# This value is recommended to be increased for installations with data dirs located in RAID array.
num.recovery.threads.per.data.dir=1

############################# Internal Topic Settings  #############################
# The replication factor for the group metadata internal topics "__consumer_offsets" and "__transaction_state"
# For anything other than development testing, a value greater than 1 is recommended to ensure availability such as 3.
offsets.topic.replication.factor=1
transaction.state.log.replication.factor=1
transaction.state.log.min.isr=1

############################# Log Flush Policy #############################

# Messages are immediately written to the filesystem but by default we only fsync() to sync
# the OS cache lazily. The following configurations control the flush of data to disk.
# There are a few important trade-offs here:
#    1. Durability: Unflushed data may be lost if you are not using replication.
#    2. Latency: Very large flush intervals may lead to latency spikes when the flush does occur as there will be a lot of data to flush.
#    3. Throughput: The flush is generally the most expensive operation, and a small flush interval may lead to excessive seeks.
# The settings below allow one to configure the flush policy to flush data after a period of time or
# every N messages (or both). This can be done globally and overridden on a per-topic basis.

# The number of messages to accept before forcing a flush of data to disk
#log.flush.interval.messages=10000

# The maximum amount of time a message can sit in a log before we force a flush
#log.flush.interval.ms=1000

############################# Log Retention Policy #############################

# The following configurations control the disposal of log segments. The policy can
# be set to delete segments after a period of time, or after a given size has accumulated.
# A segment will be deleted whenever *either* of these criteria are met. Deletion always happens
# from the end of the log.

# The minimum age of a log file to be eligible for deletion due to age
log.retention.hours=168

# A size-based retention policy for logs. Segments are pruned from the log unless the remaining
# segments drop below log.retention.bytes. Functions independently of log.retention.hours.
#log.retention.bytes=1073741824

# The maximum size of a log segment file. When this size is reached a new log segment will be created.
log.segment.bytes=1073741824

# The interval at which log segments are checked to see if they can be deleted according
# to the retention policies
log.retention.check.interval.ms=300000
EOF

Format storage using the same Kafka cluster ID on each node.

$ sudo -u kafka /opt/kafka/kafka/bin/kafka-storage.sh format -t YjhlODM3ZWZhYTE5NDU5Nj -c /opt/kafka/kafka/config/kraft/server.properties

Inspect metadata.

$ sudo -u kafka cat /opt/kafka/kafka/kafka_data/meta.properties 
#
#Sat Jun 19 14:06:49 UTC 2021
node.id=1
version=1
cluster.id=YjhlODM3ZWZhYTE5NDU5Ng

Create Kafka service.

$ cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/systemd/system/kafka.service
[Unit]
Description=kafka Service
After=network-online.target 
Requires=network-online.target

[Service]

Type=simple
Restart=on-failure

User=kafka
Group=kafka

ExecStart=/opt/kafka/kafka/bin/kafka-server-start.sh /opt/kafka/kafka/config/kraft/server.properties
ExecStop=/opt/kafka/kafka/bin/kafka-server-stop.sh /opt/kafka/kafka/config/kraft/server.properties
WorkingDirectory=/opt/kafka

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

Reload systemd configuration.

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload

Start Kafka.

$ sudo systemctl start kafka